Diabetes symptoms and treatment

diabetes symptoms

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how

your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your

health because it's an important source of energy for the cells

that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's

main source of fuel.

The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter

what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in

your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious

health problems.

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2

diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include

prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when

your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high

enough to be classified as diabetes. And prediabetes is often the

precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to

prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during

pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.


Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood

sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with

prediabetes or type 2 diabetes,

 Increased thirst

 Frequent urination

 Extreme hunger

 Unexplained weight loss

 Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of

the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's

not enough available insulin)

 Fatigue

 Irritability

 Blurred vision

 Slow-healing sores

 Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and

vaginal infections

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it often appears

during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the more

common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common

in people older than 40.

Treatment of diabetes

Doctors treat diabetes with a few different medications. Some of

these drugs are taken by mouth, while others are available

as injections.

Type 1 diabetes

Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces the

hormone your body isn’t able to produce.

There are four types of insulin that are most commonly used.

They’re differentiated by how quickly they start to work, and

how long their effects last:

 Rapid-acting insulin starts to work within 15 minutes and

its effects last for 3 to 4 hours.

 Short-acting insulin starts to work within 30 minutes and

lasts 6 to 8 hours.

 Intermediate-acting insulin starts to work within 1 to 2

hours and lasts 12 to 18 hours.

 Long-acting insulin starts to work a few hours after

injection and lasts 24 hours or longer.

Type 2 diabetes

Diet and exercise can help some people manage type 2 diabetes.

If lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood sugar,

you’ll need to take medication.

When to see a doctor

 If you suspect you or your child may have diabetes. If you

notice any possible diabetes symptoms, contact your doctor.

The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the sooner treatment

can begin.

 If you've already been diagnosed with diabetes. After you

receive your diagnosis, you'll need close medical follow-up

until your blood sugar levels stabilize.

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