Type 1 Diabetes

 

Type 1 diabetes

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which your immune system destroys insulin-making cells in your pancreas. These are called beta cells. The condition is usually diagnosed in children and young people, so it used to be called juvenile diabetes.A condition called secondary diabetes is like type 1, but your beta cells are wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas, rather than by your immune system.Both of these are different from type 2 diabetes, in which your body doesn’t respond to insulin the way it should.

How to manage diabetes mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Signs are often subtle, but they can become severe. They include:

Extreme thirst

Increased hunger

Dry mouth 

Upset stomach and vomitingF

Frequent urination 

Unexplained weight loss, even though you’re eating and feel hungry

Fatigue

Blurry vision

Signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:S

Shaking and confusion

Rapid breathing

Fruity smell to your breath

Belly pain o

Loss of consciousness 

Type 1 diabetes causes

Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Your cells use it as fuel.

Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do the job. Instead, it builds up in your blood, and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to:

 Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out.

Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This mix of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as ketoacidosis and can be life-threatening if not treated right away.

 Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardened arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes.There’s no way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Doctors don't know all the things that cause it. But they know that your genes play a role.

How to control diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

 Only about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. It affects males and females equally. You’re at higher risk of getting it if you:

Are younger than 20 

Are white

Have a parent or sibling with type 1

Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis

 If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, they’ll check your blood sugar levels. They may test your urine for glucose or chemicals your body makes when you don’t have enough insulin.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

People who have type 1 diabetes can live long, healthy lives. You’ll need to keep a close eye on your blood sugar levels. Your doctor will give you a range that the numbers should stay within. Adjust your insulin, food, and activities as necessary.Everyone with type 1 diabetes needs to use insulin shots to control their blood sugar.

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